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[其他] 托福写作考察步骤以及注意事项

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发表于 2016-5-25 18:55:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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综合写作篇:
  在综合写作方面,北京新东方老师提醒大家,同学们应该尽量的不去丢分,实际上对于同学们来说,综合写作并不考察我们的写作技巧or我们对于观点是否能够展开的能力,主要考察的我们对于阅读和听力信息整合的能力。那么同学们在备考过程中,需要做的事情就是尽可能提升阅读以及听力理解的能力,这时候同学们开心的事情是,我们在备考托福阅读以及托福听力的过程中就已经帮我们完成了托福综合写作部分能力的提升。
  综合写作考察步骤以及注意事项:
  输入过程:
  1.输入阅读部分
  提升快速阅读能力,
  首先文章主干(文章观点+论点),其次理解阅读细节部分,
  阅读技巧:开头段快速看背景,有利于理解文章观点,中间段看论点后细节部分,帮助更好理解文章论点
  2.听力能力(重点)
  捕捉听力文章主干(容易),重点捕捉听力反驳细节(难度),尽可能听到每一句反驳细节(更大难度)
  3.输出文章
  描述阅读和听力对应关系,重点描述听力内容,熟悉模版。描述过程中总结精炼阅读内容。
  例  Reading
  Private collectors have been selling and buying fossils, the petrified remains of ancient organisms, ever since the eighteenth century. In recent years, however, the sale of fossils, particularly of dinosaurs and other large vertebrates, has grown into a big business. Rare and important fossils are now being sold to private ownership for millions of dollars. This is an unfortunate development for both scientists and the general public.
  The public suffers because fossils that would otherwise be donated to museums where everyone can see them are sold to private collectors who do not allow the public to view their collections. Making it harder for the public to see fossils can lead to a decline in public interest in fossils, which would be a pity.
  More importantly, scientists are likely to lose access to some of the most important fossils and thereby miss out on potentially crucial discoveries about extinct life forms. Wealthy fossil buyers with a desire to own the rarest and most important fossils can spend virtually limitless amounts of money to acquire them. Scientists and the museums and universities they work for often cannot compete successfully for fossils against millionaire fossil buyers.
  Moreover, commercial fossil collectors often destroy valuable scientific evidence associated with the fossils they unearth. Most commercial fossil collectors are untrained or uninterested in carrying out the careful field work and documentation that reveal the most about animal life in the past. For example, scientists have learned about the biology of nest-building dinosaurs called oviraptors by carefully observing the exact position of oviraptor fossils in the ground and the presence of other fossils in the immediate surroundings. Commercial fossil collectors typically pay no attention to how fossils lie in the ground or to the smaller fossils that may surround bigger ones.    Listening Part
  of course there are some negative consequences of selling fossils in the commercial market, but they have been greatly exaggerated. The benefits of commercial fossil trade greatly outweigh the disadvantages.
  first of all, the public is likely to have greater exposure to fossils as a result of commercial fossil trade, not less exposure. Commercial fossil hunting makes a lot of fossils available for purchase, and as a result, even low-level public institutions like public schools and libraries can now routinely buy interesting fossils and display them for the public.
  As for the idea that scientists will lose access to really important fossils, that's not realistic either. Before anyone can put a value on a fossil, it needs to be scientifically identified, right? Well, the only people who can identify fossils, who can really tell what a given fossil is or isn't, are scientists, by performing detailed examinations and tests on the fossils themselves. So even if a fossil is destined to go to a private collector, it has to pass through the hands of scientific experts first. This way, the scientific community is not going to miss out on anything important that's out there.
  Finally, whatever damage commercial fossil collectors sometimes do, if it weren't for them, many fossils would simply go undiscovered because there aren't many fossil collecting operations that are run by universities and other scientific institutions. Isn't it better for science to at least have more fossils being found even if we don't have all the scientific data we'd like to have about their location and surroundings than it is to have many fossils go completely undiscovered?
  Listening Part:
  快速阅读:快速抓主干(看红色字体部分),再补充细节,包括开头段背景部分以及中间段论点后面支撑细节部分的论证。
  听力部分:抓主干,听力会一一对应阅读的观点以及论点进行逐一反驳,一般情况下会有对应的逻辑关联词对应,再听的过程中务必要集中注意力。
  输出文章:
  The lecturer rejects the ideas presented in the reading passage about the problems involved in the booming business of commercial fossil trading. In her opinion, the benefits of this new development outweigh its negative consequences.
  The lecturer does not agree with the first point made in the reading-that private collectors keep their fossil collections away from the public. She contends that the commercial trading of fossils actually makes them available to a wider public, because everyone with a budget, such as private schools and libraries, can purchase them for study and exhibition.
  The lecturer goes on to refute the claim in the reading that fossil trading business prevents scientists and public museum from benefiting from fossil finds, as these parties cannot compete with wealthy private buyers to acquire important fossils for research purpose. On the contrary, she argues, scientists themselves are the first to evaluate any important fossil before it can be sold in the commercial market at a price, so the academic community does not miss any opportunity to study privately traded fossils.
  Additionally, the lecturer challenges the final downside of fossil trading mentioned in the reading. The lecturer reminds us that the damages, if any, caused by private collectors in their field operations are offset by the effort these individuals have made to increase the number of fossils available to the public that would otherwise remain undiscovered.
  独立写作
  1.审题:浏览题干,判断题型;根据题型,决定思路;根据观点,给出论点
  2.文章结构:well-organized, well-developed, exemplification, details, explanation, example;
  well- organized(文章整体结构+ 段落内结构); (指的是文章要有很好的结构组织性;针对这一点希望同学们在实际写作的过程中注意两点,第一点文章整体的结构性,具体表现为:需要开头段表明文章观点,中间段表明论点以及结尾段重述观点以及总结论点。第二点,段落内结构组织性:要求有论点以及对应的例子来进行支撑。
  针对 well-developed 这一点, 魔君个人这么多年对于写作的理解,是认为: well-developed 这点针对well-organized这一点标准进行进一步的深化(论点支撑文章观点+ 段落内论证部分需要围绕论点进行逐层展开);
  explanation(对于论点进行解释说明,体现出考生短时间内论证能力)
  对于example来说, 理解起来就很简单了,就是字面意义上的例子的意思(同时也是一个中间段的核心部分,用来论证论点)
  对于detail来说,从字面意义来理解也不难,指的是细节(例子的核心,它能够决定例子是否能够扣题以及例子是否具有很强的论证效果)
  在这里,给大家举一个简单的例子:
  我们可以看到,魔君给出的:
  Topic sentence: Mo Jun is rich.
  Explanation: It is because Mo Jun has assets that can be transferred into actual money.
  Example and Detail: Mo Jun owns a private luxurious car of Benz and possesses more than 10 apartments in Beijing as well as marries an adorable girl.
  这里,提醒大家要记住:细节决定成败-拒绝写流水账。如果未来再有机会的话,希望同学们能够来到我的课堂,具体来看下例子到底如何展开,今天因为时间关系,我就不做多讲了。在后面讲解时候,会带大家来看看例子是怎么去构造的。
  3.Unity: 统一性,要求文章整体结构:开头段+中间段+结尾段/另外中间段部分必须围绕观点展开/ 中间段中每个句子要围绕论点展开。
  Progression:连续性,那么其一指的是:文章主体段中需要大量使用连接词(transitional words)or连接性的短句(transitional sentences)来串联,体现文章在论证过程中的层次性/其二指的是:文章主体段中需要体现出内在逻辑的递进性,具体表现为:论点有一定的抽象性,然后用例证的方法(exemplification)将抽象的论点用具体的例子具体化。
  在这里,举个例子,大家看看哪一个更好:
  论点1:食品广告是很误导人的。
  论点2:肯德基的广告一般做的非常诱惑人,吸引青少年去买一些汉堡包和炸土豆条。
  写出英文的话就是:
  The food advertisement is misleading.
  The advertisement of KFC will be designed to be much more alluring, winning the youths' favor to purchase hamburgers and french fries.
  这时候有的同学可能会觉得第二个更好,因为至少看起来字数会更多。但实际上确实第一种更好。你会发现当选择第二种论点的时候,接下来的段落展开只能够围绕着肯德基去展开了,你会发现对于肯德基你只知道有限的几种食品。 而如果选择第一种的话,在具体进行论证的时候我们就会有很多种选择了,例如可以选择肯德基,麦当劳,汉堡王等等。而且这样的展开过程也能够体现出逻辑的层次性,由总到分。
  Coherence:连贯性,正确使用代词:人称代词,指示代词,关系代词
  Sample. Agree or disagree: it is often not good to move to a new city or a new country because you will lose touch with old friends.
  1.审题:浏览题干,判断题型-题干中含有因果关系,找因果的漏洞; 根据题型,决定思路-因:搬到新城市失去老朋友,原因不成立; 果:搬到新城市不好, 结果不成立, 因此选择不同意的思路展开;论点设置:一个反驳原因,一个反驳结果
  审完题后,快速卸除文章结构:开头段+论点1+论点2+ 让步段+结尾段
  As the technology of public transportation keeps advancing, more citizens can choose to dwell in the cities that are beneficial to their own development. Inevitably, then occurs a controversy whether moving to a new city or country will lead to the rupture of relationship among friends. From my perspective, I think the statement is not sensible.
  Firstly, moving to a new country or city will not result in the loss of old friends.
  Moreover, instead of losing old friends, city migrants can even enlarge their social circles and achieve more success.
  Admittedly, it can be understandable that friends can be estranged as a consequence of the long distance.Specifically speaking, the chances to meet with each other will be limited a lot. However, for one thing, people can talk with each other through various social network software. For another thing, the distance between cities is not a problem anymore since there have been many public transportation tools like the high-speed trains and airplanes that will lead us to anyplace we try to go in a very short period.
  In a word, moving to a new city or a new country is good choice under some circumstance. Besides, the highly developed technology can help to strengthen the relations with our friends and the possibilities of living a different life and achieving success can both explain why I stand by the statement that it is a good thing to move to a new city.
  文章结构完成后,将论点展开成中间段,遵循步骤:论点+解释+例子(细节)+结论
  Firstly, moving to a new country or city will not result in the loss of old friends. To be more specific, the maintenance of friendship doesn't lie in how far they live with each other and the development of technology has diversified the ways of interacting with friends. The invention of cellphones shatters the shackles caused by distance and overseas students can choose to communicate with their family members and friends through a variety of Apps like WeChat that makes video calls possible. Except for that, by looking at the pictures popping up all over the social media like Facebook, people can easily capture what is happening to their friends. For instance, my friend Selina took selfie in the Sydney Opera House a week ago and I would learn that she was having fun in the Australia with her picture posted on the Instagram. Therefore, a wide range of advanced electronic gadgets can be used to sustain friendship.
  Moreover, instead of losing old friends, city migrants can even enlarge their social circles and achieve more success. Restricted in a city for a long period, people may be trapped in a situation that would block their development and they can gain refreshing experience while immigrating to a new city. A friend of Mine named Michael served as a Market Analyst in a renewed company in Beijing. However, he couldn't see any progress in recent years and then an opportunity comes out. Because of his five-year working experience, a foreign trade cooperation tried to recruit him as the Market Analyst because the firm was planning to start a new program. Then he grasped the chance and earns a challenging life that he likes even though he was required to work in Shanghai. Our relationship has not experienced any interruption and his strong ability of being adapted to the new environment helps him to make lots of new friends. Accordingly, moving to a new city can, occasionally, help to break the deadlock in our professions.
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